Social science research newspaper articles
We narrow down even further when we collect observations to article the hypotheses. We then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we can test. Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific.
These two methods of reasoning have a very different "feel" to them when you're conducting research. Even though a particular study may look like it's purely deductive e. Even in the most constrained experiment, the researchers may observe patterns in the data that lead them to develop new theories.
Informally, we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach please note that it's "bottom up" and not "bottoms up" which is the kind of thing the bartender says to customers social science he's trying to close for the night! We might begin research newspaper thinking up a theory about our topic of interest.
Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses. Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach.
This ultimately leads us to be able to test the hypotheses with specific data -- a confirmation or not of our original theories. In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or types of dehydration synthesis. In fact, it doesn't take a rocket scientist to see that we could assemble the two graphs above into a single circular one that continually cycles from theories down to observations and back up again to theories.
Ukranian Translation In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches. Inductive reasoning, by its very nature, is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning.
Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories.
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