Rapid synthesis of thermally stable hydroxyapatite, resolve a doi name
The elemental composition of nanoparticles can be determined via EDS mapping. The advantage of using plants over other eco-friendly biologically based systems such bacteria and fungi, is that it avoids the use of specific, well-conditioned culture preparation and isolation techniques that tend to be expensive and elaborate.
At this size scale there are significant differences in many material properties that are normally not seen in the same materials at larger scales.
These surface imperfections can significantly impact on the overall nanoparticle surface physicochemical properties [ 83 ]. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent trends in synthesizing nanoparticles via biological entities and their potential applications. Comparing the above-mentioned biological identities and their potential to become efficient biological factories, synthesizing nanoparticles via plants, is a relatively straight forward and advantageous approach [ 7475 ].
In the case of chemical and biological synthesis of nanoparticles, the aqueous metal ion precursors from metal salts are reduced and as a result a colour change occurs in the reaction mixture. Conventional synthesis of nanoparticles can involve expensive chemical and physical processes that often use toxic materials with potential hazards such as environmental toxicity, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenicity [ 45 ].
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Nanotechnology is the creation, manipulation and use of materials at the nanometre size scale 1 to nm. This relatively new field is focused on the creation, manipulation, and use of materials at the nanometre scale for advanced biotechnology [ 1 ].
The capability of microorganisms to actively interact with their surrounding environment stems from the composition of their lipid-based amphipathic membranes enables a variety of oxidation-reduction mechanisms to take place and promote rapid synthesis of thermally stable hydroxyapatite conversions [, ].
Characterisation Techniques To date, there are numerous techniques for synthesizing nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles have been extensively used in biomedical applications [ 8910 ], separation sciences [ 11 ], disease diagnostics [ 12 ], and pharmaceuticals topics for term paper in electronics 1314 ].
In recent years, biological synthesis has emerged as an attractive alternative to traditional synthesis methods for producing nanoparticles. However, these techniques fall into two broad approaches and can be defined as either a top down approach or a bottom up approach [ 808182 ]. Hence, there is still a considerable level of research that needs to be undertaken to fully investigate and elucidate differences in nanoparticle size and morphology between different metals when synthesized using the same microorganism [ 65]. Furthermore, synthesis in plants tends to be faster than microorganisms, teach essay writing esl more cost-effective and is relatively easy to scale up for the production of large quantities of nanoparticles [ 7476777879 ].
Whereas XRD examination produces a diffraction pattern that is subsequently compared with data contained in a standard crystallographic database to determine structural information.
Analysis of the XRD data identifies crystallite size, structure, preferred crystal orientation, and phases present in samples [ 9697 ]. CaPs are used as coatings on metallic implants, CaP cements, and custom designed scaffolds to treat musculoskeletal disorders.